Thursday, January 14, 2010

See Jesus in the Feasts of the Jews this Easter

Years ago in Tulsa, Oklahoma I ministered to a group of people who taught me a great deal about one's love for Christ. On the podium where I taught every Sunday was a plaque with these words enscribed on it: "Sir, we would see Jesus."

Few western evangelicals realize that time (from a human perspective) is measured differently in the Bible than the way we measure it today. When the One who transcends time establishes a calendar for man's sake, He does so according to the moon, not the sun. The biblical was a lunar calendar, whereas our calendar in the United States is a solar calendar. The Jews measured months by the moon's rotation around the earth. Today, we measure time by the earth's rotation around the sun. Until you have a basic understanding of the biblical lunar calendar, it will be easy to miss some wonderful truths regarding the birth, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus the Christ. This post, modified and reprinted from three years ago, fulfills for the Easter season of 2013 the injuction: "Sir, we would see Jesus."

The Biblical Calendar and the Moon

A calendar is a system of organizing units of time for the purpose of measuring time over extended periods. The word "calendar" is from the Latin and means, “to call attention to the new moon.” The Biblical calendar revolved around the people of God eyeballing the moon as it rotated around the earth and keeping track of the four seasons on earth (spring, summer, fall, winter). We know that the seasons are the result of the effects of the sun upon the earth--hot, cold and mild--but the Jews only measured "days" by the sun (from sunset to sunset). Their months and seasons, prescribed by God, were counted off by eyeballing the moon.

The Biblical months began with the new moon, and there were "new moon festivals" to celebrate the dawning of a new month. The Jews worshipped God in a prescribed way during these new moons. "Whenever burnt offerings are presented to the Lord at the new moon.... the people are to serve the Lord in the proper way prescribed for them" (I Chronicles 23:31). The worship of God by the Jews was prescribed for them by God because everything they did pointed to Jesus Christ, as we shall see.

Since it takes 29 ½ days for the moon to complete her cycle around the earth the Biblical calendar consisted of 12 or 13 lunar months in a year, with the odd number months consisting of 30 days and the even number months consisting of 29 days. The years that have an additional month, the thirteenth month, are the years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 in a nineteen-year cycle. The reason a thirteenth month had to be added to the biblical calendar seven times during a nineteen year span is because the lunar year is shorter than the solar year by 11 days. If the Hebrews had not added a thirteenth month every few years, the winter season would eventually move on the calendar and occur in the summer months, and vice versa! Though this all may sound complicated, to the Jewish priests, it was as simple as waching the sky for a "new moon" (i.e. the time the moon disappears in darkness),  knowing the agricultural seasons, and blowing the trumpets to mark the beginning of a new month.

God told Moses to Alter the Lunar Calendar

When God delivered His people Israel from Egyptian bondage, He told Moses to make the month in which the Passover occurred (the Abib) "the beginning of months" (Exodus 12:2). This one verse alone should indicate to you that God has a purpose for "the lunar calendar." Every act of worship in the Old Covenant was a type or shadow of the reality to be fulfilled in the coming Anointed One. "It is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sin" (Hebrews 10:4), but the One to whom the bulls and goats point in picture form does precisely this--He takes away our sin. The feasts of Israel, the animal sacrifices of the Jews, and the ritualistic worship of God's people all point to what Jesus did on our behalf.

There were seven major feasts prescribed by God in the Old Testament. Each of these Seven Feasts of Israel (sometimes called Festivals) were celebrated at God prescribed times according to the lunar calendar. When God incarnated Himself and walked among us His birth, His death, His resurrection, His ascension, and His gift of the Holy Spirit all occurred precisely the same time as the Feasts that foreshadowed Christ. The type (a particular Feast) was fulfilled in the anti-type (Jesus Christ).

In other words, the God who transcends time, keeps time for us, in order that as we measure time, He comes to us precisely "in the fulness of time." History is His Story. Let me show you.

The Feasts of Israel

The seven biblical Feasts or Festivals prescribed by God for the nation of Israel can be broken down into three major groupings.

(Grouping Number 1) --- The Three Spring Festivals
The Feast of Passover, The Feast of Unleavened Bread, The Feast of the Waving of the Sheaf of Firstfruits.

These three Feasts took place all within a few days of each other and occurred in the first month of the Biblical lunar (Nissan, also called "The Abib"), which corresponds to our March and April. These feasts were often lumped together as “Passover” or “The Feast of Unleavened Bread.”

“When I see the blood, I will pass over you and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt” (Exodus 12:13). The Hebrew phrase “Passover” is in the Greek “pascha” thus the Passover lamb is the Paschal lamb, and all that pertains to the appointed lamb (a lamb without blemish, in the prime of its life, its blood shed for the family, etc...) pertains to the person and work of Jesus Christ, the Paschal Lamb of God. We know this to be true because of several events prophesied by the prophets regarding the Messiah’s death:

(1). Genesis 49:10 describes the precise age in which the Messiah would come.
(2). Daniel 9:26 describes the precise year in which the Messiah would die.
(3). Amos 8:9-10 describes the exact day on which the Messiah would die.

These three prophecies point us directly to the substitutionary death of Jesus Christ on behalf of sinners as our Paschal Lamb. Jesus died precisely at the time the Jews were slaying their lambs for the celebration of The Feast of Passover, on the 14th day of the Abib  (also called Nissan).  The Abib (notice the definitive article 'the') in Hebrew means "the act of parching by burning" and is it any wonder that when Jesus Christ died on the cross on the 14th day of the Abib, the fires of God's holiness and righteous judgment parched the life of His Son, the very One who became sin for us? The Passover was established and prescribed by God for Israel 1400 years before the death of Christ. In the fulness of time, Jesus fulfilled what the Passover represented. The Lamb was slain that the righteous judgment of God might pass over those who trust Him. Jesus could not have died at any other time, during any other day, for His death was prescribed by God and pictured in the Feast of Passover. When people sought to kill Jesus earlier in His ministry, He simply walked through them saying, "My time has not yet come" (John 7:30). A person may think he escapes God's judgment apart from the cross, but that kind of thinking is foolish and contrary to the explicit teaching of Scripture.

In love for sinners, God swept away the sin of His people through the death of His Son. This sweeping away of sin is pictured in the second feast of the Jews called The Feast of Unleavened Bread. The Feast of Unleavened Bread was observed for centuries the seven days after Passover. The Jews were to sweep out all leaven in their homes. This typifies all our sins being carried away by the Lamb of God. In the fulfillment of The Feast of Unleavened Bread, God does the sweeping. He removes our sins from us "as far as the east is from the west." It is an act of grace, a work of God, and it is accomplished by removing our sin from us, placing it on Christ, and pouring out righteous judgment on the Son for us.

The wages of sin is death. Every person, even believers in Christ, will one day die! Every person, even believers in Christ, still struggle with personal sins. What is our assurance that God, from His perspective, has removed judgment from us for our sins, and we have His unconditional love, favor and acceptance? The answer is found in The Feast of the Waving of the Sheaf of Firstfruits. Jesus Christ rose from the grave on the very day the Jews were celebrating this feast. This feast was prescribed by God to be celebrated "on the morrow after the Sabbath" during the week of Passover (Lev. 23:9-14). The Jews were told by God to go to the Temple on the "morning after the Sabbath" (Sunday morning) during the week of Passover and wave a "sheaf" of the first fruits of their grain harvest before the Lord. As they waved their first fruits of grain before God and gave it to the priests, they were told that God would prosper and bless "their entire harvest" in the same manner He had blessed the "firstfruits."

When Paul writes of the resurrection in I Corinthians 15:20 he calls Christ "the firstfruits" of the resurrection--pointing out that God accepts and blesses all those whom Christ represents in His death and resurrection. In other words, your life--your eternal life--of blessing, favor, and prosperity from God is based upon the blessings of the firstfruits--Jesus Christ. You are guaranteed God's favor because Christ rose from the dead and you wave His life, His death, His resurrection before God by faith and acknowledge that any blessings you receive from your Creator are due to His obedience on your behalf. The death of Christ would have no meaning if it were not for the resurrection of Christ. God raised “His cursed son” (Galatians 3:13) from the dead as proof of His pleasure in His Son’s sacrifice! (Eph. 1:15-23). Those who trust in Christ will be raised to eternal life in the same manner.

(Grouping Number 2) --- The One Summer Festival
Pentecost -- the Greek name for "The Feast of Weeks"

It is known by various other names including “The Feast of Harvest” and most commonly as The Feast of Weeks "(or Pentecost) A week in Scripture represents the number seven (either days or years). In the case of this feast it represents days. Seven weeks (49 days) from the “Festival of the Sheaf of the Firstfruits” (on a Sunday) with Sunday being day one. When you get to the 49th day you arrive at a Saturday (The Jewish Sabbath). On the “morrow after the sabbath” (Lev. 23:15-21) you arrive at “The Fiftieth Day” (thus the Greek “Pente” meaning 5). Just like the day of Resurrection (The Festival of the Sheaf of Firstfuits) the fourth major Jewish festival occurs on a Sunday (the morrow after the Sabbath)

The number 50 is used throughout Scripture to represent liberty, freedom or deliverance. Every 50th year was the year of Jubilee for the nation of Israel. When Christ died in 30 A.D. the people of Israel were celebrating a year of Jubilee; 50 days after Christ died the disciples were in the upper room when the Spirit of God fell and empowered them. This day of Pentecost is the anti-type of the Old Testament Pentecost -- 50 days after Passover.

*Compare the differences between the Old Covenant Pentecost vs. New Covenant Pentecost. On the 50th day after Passover and leaving Egypt (Old Covenant), God gave Israel the law written on stone. On the 50th after the Passover of Christ’s death (New Covenant) God gave His people the law written on their hearts. On the day of Old Covenant Pentecost--recording in the Old Testament as the fiftieth day after leaving Egypt--3,000 people died at the giving of the Law, for the Law the law condemns. However, on the day of Pentecost in the New Testament--fifty days after the resurrection of Christ--3,000 people were saved, for the Spirit gives life. The glory of God shone on the face of Moses in the Old Covenant, but the glory of God lives in the hearts of His people through the Spirit in the New Covenant. The Old is the letter of the law, but the New is life in the Spirit. It is a tragedy when God's people seek to live by the letter of the Law when Christ fulfilled the Mosaic Law  and abolished it. The church that acts like it is a Temple, the pastor who acts like he is a priest, the people who act like they owe God a tithe and sacrifices, and the kind of Christianity that emphasis the Law more than the Spirit is more suited to the Old Covenant order. When the Spirit fills Christ followers with the power of God, then God's people begin to focus their lives on fulfilling the Royal Law of God - loving others as Christ has loved us--and pay scant attention to little else.

(Grouping Number 3) --- The Three Fall Festivals
The Feast of Trumpets, The Day of Atonement, and The Feast of Tabernacles.

These three feasts took place within the seventh month of the lunar calendar (Ethanim or also called Tisri). This month corresponds to our September/October. It was this month in which the fruit harvest (mostly grapes) occurred.

These Fall festivals correspond to the two "comings" of Christ to earth--His first coming (Bethlehem) and His Second Coming (to establish His eternal kingdom). His birth in Bethlehem is pictured in The Feast of Tabernacles, when God came to earth and tabernacled among men (John 1:1). The intercession of Jesus as the High Priest for His people is pictured in the Feast of Atonement. His Second Coming is pictured in The Feast of Trumpets. Time does not permit to show the signficance of these three Jewish feasts, but needless to say, all three of them, like the other four feasts, all point to Jesus Christ and were fulfilled by Him precisely.

So, in summary, Jesus Christ came to earth during the Feast of Taberacles. He died on the Feast of Passover and was buried in the tomb during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Jesus rose on the day of the Feast of the Waving of the Sheaf, and He sent His Spirit as a gift on the Feast of Pentecost. He now intercedes on our behalf as our Great High Priest in fulfillment of the Feast of Atonement, and He will one day come to establish His eternal kingdom and judge the world in fulfillment of the Feast of Trumpets.

Next time you read the Bible, remember that is is not written as a self-help manual. It is the meta-narrative of the only Savior this world will ever see. This Easter 2013, take a little time to thank God that time is measured in terms of His Son, and when you do, you will never waste a day by neglecting to think of and praise your Savior.


greg.w.h said...

Not to quibble with the basic points, but it's a lunisolar calendar in the sense that it is aligned with both lunar months and solar years. As you note, most months are designed to align with lunar months, but there are smaller months and other inserted days that also keep it in alignment with the solar calendar (1 year being 365 days and change.) That outcome of the festivals not drifting with respect to the solar year is one key difference between the Hebrew and Islamic calendars which is a strictly lunar calendar based on a 354 or 355 day year.

I think I commented on this in detail in the past--because I found it fascinating--so rather than augmenting with MORE detail, I'll just link to the Wikipedia page

I think the linkage between the New Testament events and the Old Testament festivals is designed to create a rich imagery that we as human beings relate to in a deep, satisfying way.

That isn't to say I think ALL types and symbolic interpretations are perfect or correct, but that there is a tremendous depth to them that BEG for an explanation that only God can give. And some of that explanation (but not hardly ALL of it) is "accessible" when we read the text, often augmented by "ah ha" moments when the Holy Spirit ties the pieces together for us.

Greg Harvey

greg.w.h said...

One slight enhancement of my first paragraph: it isn't strictly aligned with EVERY solar year exactly since non-leap years are essentially the same length as a 'standard' lunar year or 354 or 355 days. The leap months and extra days realigns a set of years--specifically the monadic cycle of 19 years--with a similar number of "solar" years.

Overall, there is a drift of approximately one day per 224 years with respect to the present era mean northward equinoctal year. A similar drift with respect to the (modified) Gregorian calendar is 1 day every 231 years.

I know, I know, I wasn't going to go into that detail.

Greg said...

Agreed, Greg.

The solar in the lunisolar calendar of the Jews was due to the fact they watched the seasons, caused by the sun. I could write "lunarsolar" to describe the calendar, but the Bible speaks of "new moons" and the emphasis is on the lunar.

I'm glad you find this fascinating. So do I. The typology and the fulfillment of the Feasts in Christ is an extraordinary work of a Sovereign God.


Steven Stark said...

“Jesus died AT PASSOVER (the 14th day of Abib)”

Maybe the 15th of Abib in the synoptics? Since the Last Supper was the Passover Meal in Matthew, Mark and Luke and the Last Supper was the day of preparation in John?

I have read a little bit about how the early Christians correlated the stories of Jesus with their pre-existing Jewish traditions.

Interesting stuff, I will have to read more. said...


Contrary to the Roman Catholic belief that Christ died on Friday, I believe the Scriptures teach He died either on a Wednesday or Thursday. The week of Passover at the time of Christ's death was a double Sabbath week (see John 19:31). The High Sabbath of that week was the Passover Sabbath on either Thursday or Friday. This is why the soldiers had to rush to get Jesus off the cross. The regular Sabbath of the Jews (Saturday).

Jesus died "between the evenings" on the 14th, the day for the killing of the Paschal lamb for the Passover meal that night. The meal Christ ate with his disciples was the night before marked the launching "A New Covenant." It was not necessary that this "Lord's Supper" be eaten on Passover night. The Lord of the Sabbath took the bread and the wine and gave it to His disciples to inaugurate a new agreement, and the supper did not need to conform in timing to the Jewish Passover supper or the Old Covenant (Agreement) God had with Israel.

Christiane said...

Wade is right about the Saturday Sabbath. But its beginning is at sundown on Friday.

The Jewish Sabbath begins at sundown on Friday and lasts until sundown on Saturday. Saturday, after sundown, the Sabbath is considered to have ended.

By sunset, on Friday, all preparations and travel cease, the family gathers for the lighting of the Shabbat candles. (Orthodox Jewish practice, still used by the Orthodox today)

Anonymous said...

"Contrary to the Roman Catholic belief that Christ died on Friday, I believe the Scriptures teach He died either on a Wednesday"

Praise the Lord and pass the jelly!

I preached a 2 part Easter message 2 years ago attempting to lay out this very timeline. (I don't recommend that though) I got a lot of flack.

3 Days 3 Nights, as was Jonah in the whale ought to be enough to debunk Good Friday. But thank you Wade for the detailed blog post. I have read much on this and done much study, but the weariness began with my lack of knowledge of Calendars. Your explanation gives me some great roads to travel.


greg.w.h said...

Oh, one more comment: one of my favorite singer theologian songwriters is Michael Card and he has a wonderful song that claims "Jesus is our Jubilee":


The Lord provided for a time
For the slaves to be set free
For the debts to all be canceled
So His chosen ones could see

His deep desire was for forgiveness
He longed to see their liberty
And His yearning was embodied
In the Year of Jubilee

Jubilee, Jubilee
Jesus is our Jubilee
Debts forgiven
Slaves set free
Jesus is our Jubilee

At the Lord's appointed time
His deep desire became a man
The heart of all true jubilation
And with joy we understand
In his voice we hear a trumpet sound
That tells us we are free
He is the incarnation
Of the year of Jubilee

Jubilee, Jubilee
Jesus is our Jubilee
Debts forgiven
Slaves set free
Jesus is our Jubilee

To be so completely guilty
Given over to despair
To look into your judges face
And see a Savior there

Jubilee, Jubilee
Jesus is our Jubilee
Debts forgiven
Slaves set free
Jesus is our Jubilee

The idea isn't just that the feasts are fulfilled in Christ Jesus, but that they are literally brought to life in him as well.

Greg Harvey

greg.w.h said...

brought to life == incarnated ;)


Steven Stark said...

It' an interesting harmonization, but aren't verses like Mark 14:12 very clear about the date of the Last Supper being on Passover, since they are preparing for it "on the Passover lamb is sacrificed"?

I will look into it more.

Christiane said...

Mentioning the the Passover, this was written about 70 A.D. by St. Luke:

Lk 22:15-20
"He (Jesus) said to them, "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer, for, I tell you, I shall not eat it (again) until there is fulfillment in the kingdom of God."
Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and said, "Take this and share it among yourselves; for I tell you (that) from this time on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes." Then he took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me." And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which will be shed for you."

The new studies of scriptures to do with the days of the Tridium are fascinating.

Tom Kelley said...

Notice: I hereby forbid anyone from judging me over my lack of knowledge about this topic.

Colossians 2:16
Therefore do not let anyone judge you by what you eat or drink, or with regard to a religious festival, a New Moon celebration or a Sabbath day. said...


Now that's funny.


TheWayofCain said...

See how all are fulfilled:

Christiane said...

The Babylonian Talmud
vol. lll, Sanhedrin 43a, 281
gives information about the day that Jesus died.

Gene S said...

Most of us do not have sense enough to recognize time is a creation of man to make some sense of the universe.

However, even our best efforts require a Leak Year of other adjustment to stay in tune with celestial mechanics and a calendar which does not get out of date.

With all our human brilliance and modern technology without a solution during man's sojourn on this planet---it ought to tell you how dumb we really are to be pontificating with BF&M 2000!

Anonymous said...


I personally think time is God's creation. He created the 7 day week, and the 4 seasons and the sun and the moon. It is the only concept we have for measuring linear existence. God may have a clock which is transcendent from ours, but is he who began this age and it is he who will end it. At least that is my personal view.


Gene S said...

When you start looking at some of the thinking of Steven Hawking and other physicists as to theories of time and space, you quickly discover that what seems so simple to us has, not just a linear quality, but circular and multi-dimensional.

Has anyone considered the similarity of atoms with a nucleus and electrons and protons spinning around it as to how it replicates our solar system? Is is possible a given atom is a galaxie or solar system in miniature to infinity just as the stars and galaxies to to the infinity of large size.

God understands and creates and we are just scratching the surface of his marvelous Creation in awe and wonder!

Jeff Rogers said...

Something to consider. We are now in tabernacle with Jesus. "Lo I am with you always..." "I will never leave thee nor forsake thee." "Where I am, there will my servant be". Jesus clearly taught that after His ascension and the giving of His Holy Spirit that we would be with Him from that point on into eternity. The presence of Christ to believers today is a reality, not a pipe dream or a wish. HE is with us. We are even now "Tabernacling" with Him. Hence you could see (and I do) the feast of Tabernacles, the last of the 7 agricultural calendar feasts as having an ongoing fulfillment today. Problem is that the feasts do appear to have their fulfillment in Chronological order. This is good news if you happen to be a Preterist, for in preterism, the feast of the trumpets occurred on the darkest day of the 7th month and it was not something that was scheduled. The priests across Israel would observe at night looking for the appearance of the New Moon. When it was confirmed by two or more priests to the high priest then they would blow the trumpet. This looks like the imminent return in judgment (A dark day) for Israel in the first century. The trumpets corresponding with the judgments in Revelation. Following that we have the day of Atonement which can also be fit into the preterist teaching of the first century fulfillment very well. Hebrews 9:28, "So Christ having been offered once to bear teh sins of many will appear a second time, not to deal with sin, but to save those who eagerly await him." This first century judgment of Israel in 70 A.D. was also a coming of Christ to rescue those who were faithful to the end (end of the age--Jewish age). This day of Atonement would have been celebrated on the same calander day in September that Josephus records as the fall of Jerusalem. So while I agree that these last three feasts have an eschatological fulfillment, I believe the fit better as being fulfilled in the first century, not some future time.


Jeff Rogers said...

I believe the concept of time is fascinating. I would consider it God's creation because we base the majority of our time increments on solar and lunar movement. Solar movement is of course the primary measure. We demarcate the day by the suns appearing and concealing. WE mark a month by the lunar movement, and we count years by the travel of the Earth around the Sun. The seconds minutes and hours are merely sectional increments of the rotational times of the sun and moon.

Oddly enough, the week that we count as seven days...does not have a astrological root. The week is clearly a time function of God's original creation. Man cannot escape this clear reference to deity. Throughout the ages, man has attempted to worship sun moon and stars and openly recognized the time functions of those stellar bodies. But man has rebelled against the week, the only time creation that rests solely in the declaration of God. Many want to change the week to show it starting on Monday. you can buy calendars and day planners that do this. The reason is, they want to deny God's hand in giving us the week. They also want to confuse the issue of the resurrection. If Jesus was raised on the "First day of the week" and the pagan society gets everyone thinking that Monday is the 1st day, then confusion will have set in.

While in the New Covenant we do not celebrate the 7th day Sabbath, the existence of that Holy Day in the Old Covenant is glaring proof of God's inserting himself into his creation in time and insisting that man conduct themselves on HIS time table.


Christiane said...

As far as I have been able to 'sort out' the view of my Church, it goes like this:

crucifixion was Friday (which would have lasted from sundown Thurday to just before sundown Friday)

The hour of death is recorded as three in the afternoon.

Time in the tomb would have begun before sunset on Friday.
Time in the tomb would have continued through Saturday (from sundown Friday night until sundown Saturday night)

Resurrection would have occured ON THE THIRD DAY
which would be Sunday (started at sundown Saturday and lasts until sundown Sunday)

If you don't interpret 'three days and three nights' as a literal 72 hours, it does fit that
DEATH and BURIAL: First Day
BURIAL all Saturday: Seccnd Day
Burial and RESURRECTION: on 3rd Day

So that is what I found out. It is certainly different from the other calculations, and doesn't have the resurrection happening on the fourth day.

Very interesting theories: all said...


I could argue, like you, for the past fulfillment of the last three feasts rather than the future fulfillment. I can see both sides on this one, and am not dogmatic on either.


Christiane said...

I located another interesting commentary concerning days recommended for fasting in the early Church.

The Didache, written in the first century, assigns Wednesday as well as Friday for full-fasting days.
Wednesday is mentioned as the 'fourth day' and Friday as the 'Preparation Day'.

In commentaries on the Didache, I found this:
" In any event, the Wednesday and Friday fasts were widely observed in early Christianity (e.g., Tert., Ieiun. 2; Clement,
Str. 7. [12]:75.2)

Certainly one of these two days would, of course, been a fasting-day to remember the crucifixion of Our Lord.

Another piece of the puzzle, perhaps. ?

Christiane said...

I found MORE:

in the early Church there was disagreement about Holy Week. One of the groups involved was called the 'Quartodecimans', who tried to align the Holy Days up with the Hebrew calendar. Problem: the Hebrew calendar was sometimes 'added to' by the Sanhedrin, sometimes a day or two, sometimes a whole month, as they saw fit. Still, the Quartodecimans felt that they were being more accurate by following the Hebrew calendar.

Apparently there was quite a dust-up over this controversy, but in the end, it did not lead to schism.